Kidney stone or nephrolithiasis becomes common kidney disease nowadays. Our daily busy rutin and improper diet increase the risk of kidney stone.The unpleasant physical sensation caused by the solid mineral mass within the kidney or urinary tract is called renal colic. The agents that cause this sensation are known as kidney stones or also known as nephrolithiasis. They can cause blockage of the ureter (the narrow ducts leading to the bladder) and this blockage can cause decreased function and dilation of the kidney.
What is Kidney Stone?
Kidney Stone is basically a hard crystallise piece of material that form in our kidney when Urine becomes highly concentrated. The salt and other minerals in urine stick together to form a small structure like a stone. Kidney stone mostly made from minerals like calcium, and with magnesium ammonium phosphate, amino acid cysteine and uric acid. It can stay in your kidney or move down your urinary tract. If its break it pushed into the ureters caused bleeding.
What causes kidney stone?
As I said earlier a kidney stone is formed when urine volume decrease. There is no specific reason why this caused. But Kidney stone are more prevalent in men than in women. In some cases, a small percentage of pregnant are susceptible to developing a kidney stone.
Pregnancy- related causes of kidney stones are
• Increased progesterone levels which slow down the passage of urine
• Reduced intake of fluid due to decrease in bladder control
And not drinking enough fluids is a higher risk for kidney stone since their urine is more concentrated and not as easy filter.
Type of kidney stone
The size of kidney stone varies. It could be the size of grain or as large as a pea. It also could be made by different thing
» Uric Acid stones
This is more prevalent in people with gout. This type of kidney stone is more common in men than women. It is the result of high purine level (purine is a colourless substance in animal proteins) which increases urine’s acidic level. Consuming a lot of fish, shellfish and meat may increase production of uric acid in the urine.
» Calcium stone
They are the most common type of stones made of calcium oxalate (most common), phosphate, or maleate. Eating fewer oxalate-rich foods can reduce the risk of developing this type of stone. These include spinach, rhubarb, Swiss chard, beets, peanuts and wheat germ. Also limit your sodium intake by keeping away from processed and fast food, canned soups, vegetables, and lunch meats. Replace animal protein with plant-based foods that are high in protein. These include legumes, soy-based food products, nuts and sunflower seeds.
» Struvite stones
These are more common in women. The main cause of this type of kidney stone formation is a kidney infection. These stones cause obstruction in urination. This type of kidney stone forms all of a sudden and tends to increase its size rather quickly.
» Cystine stone
Cystine (occurs naturally in the body) stones are rare which occurs both in men and women who have the genetic disorder cystinuria. Here the amino acid cysteine is excreted into the urine via the kidneys.
Symptoms of Kidney Stone
Kidney stone symptoms for male & female are same. Kidney stone does not always create any problem if its small in size. When it large in size it could block the urine flow which causes several painful symptoms.
Blockage in ureters could cause sharp or mild abdominal pain on lower or left side. The pain often starts abruptly and the become more intense over time. you may experience constant pain for long lime or sometimes it’s lasted for a few minutes and started again and again. A change in the level of intensity may occur as the stone moves to a different position in your urinary tract.
• There are some other symptoms of this disease like
• Pain in lower/ side back
• Pain while urinating
• Colour changing of urine
• Urine became cloudy and or smell differently than it normally does
• Blood in urine
• Burning sensation during urinating
It also cause some additional symptoms with pain like
Diagnosis for Kidney stone or nephrolithiasis
If you have the following symptoms may be it conducted to assess for a kidney stone. and your doctor may confirm a diagnosis of kidney stones by ordering tests like
› Urine tests:
Examining the stones which you may excrete in your urine sample
› Imaging test
Doctors generally conducted Imaging test to confirm a diagnosis. CT scans may be performed to eliminate other cause of abdominal pain and identify the presence of stones in the urinary tract.
Treatment for Kidney stone
Most kidney stones eventually pass through the urinary tract on their own within 48 hours, with ample fluid intake. Doctors may give you a special strainer to use each time you urinate. You can use this to collect any stones or pieces of stones that may come out. Collecting the stones is beneficial because your doctor can send them for lab analysis. Knowing what kind of kidney stones you’ve passed can help your doctor work with you to create a plan for reducing your risk for future kidney stones.
In major cases, a treatment called Lithotripsy use for preventing kidney stone. Lithotripsy is typically using ultrasound shock waves, by which a kidney stone or other calculus is broken into small particles that can be passed out by the body.