Bunion Disease – Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

A bunion is a bony bump that forms on the joint at the base of your big toe. Bunion happens when some of the bones in the front part of the foot move out of place. This makes the tip of the big toe to get pulled toward the smaller toes and forces the joint at the base of the big toe to stick out. The skin over the bunion might be red and sore. Wearing tight, narrow shoes might create bunions or make them worse. Bunions can also develop as an outcome of the shape of the foot, a foot deformity, or a medical condition, like arthritis disease. Smaller bunions can arise on the joint of the little toe.

Symptoms of Bunion Disease

The signs and symptoms of a bunion include:

1) A bulging bump on the outside of the base of the big toe
2) Swelling, redness or soreness around the big toe joint
3) Corns or calluses these sometimes develop where the first and second toes rub against each other
4) Ongoing pain or pain that appears and goes away
5) Confined movement of the big toe

Bunion Disease Causes

There are many theories about how bunions grow, but the just cause of a bunion is not known. Factors likely involve:

1) Inherited foot type
2) Foot stress or injuries
3) Deformities present at birth
4) Experts disagree on whether tight, high-heeled, or too-narrow shoes cause bunions or whether footwear simply contributes to the development of bunions.

Bunions might be related to certain types of arthritis, especially inflammatory types, like rheumatoid arthritis.

Complications of Bunion Disease

Possible complications of bunions disease include:

1) Bursitis: This painful condition happens when the small fluid-filled pads that cushion the bones near the joints become inflamed.
2) Hammertoe: An abnormal bend that happens in the middle joint of a toe, typically the toe next to the big toe, can make pain and pressure.
3) Metatarsalgia: This condition creates pain and swelling in the ball of the foot.

Bunion Disease Diagnosis

The doctor can detect a bunion by testing the foot. After the physical test, an X-ray of the foot can assist the doctor in the diagnosis of the bunion disease and the best way to treat it.

Treatment of Bunion Disease

Treatment of bunion disease differ based on the severity of the bunion and how much pain it creates.

1) Conservative treatment: Nonsurgical treatments that may relieve the pain and pressure of a bunion disease include

a) Changing shoes: Wear roomy, comfortable shoes that offer plenty of space for the toes.
b) Padding: Over-the-counter, nonmedicated bunion pads or cushions may be beneficial. They can act as a buffer between the foot and the shoe and ease your pain.
c) Medicines
d) Shoe inserts: Padded shoe inserts can assist in distributing pressure evenly when you move the feet, minimizing the symptoms and preventing the bunion from getting worse. Over-the-counter supports can offer relief for some people; others need prescription orthotic devices.
e) Applying ice: Icing the bunion after you have been on the feet too long or if it becomes inflamed can assist relieve soreness and swelling. If you have minimized feeling or circulation problems with the feet, consult with the doctor first before applying ice.
2) Surgical treatment
If conservative treatment does not relieve the symptoms, you might need surgery. Surgery is not suggested for cosmetic reasons; only when a bunion makes you frequent pain or interferes with the daily activities. There are many surgical processes for bunions, and no one technique is suitable for every problem. You may be able to walk on the foot right after a bunion procedure. However, full recovery can take weeks to months. To prevent a comeback, you will need to wear proper shoes after recovery. For most people, it is unrealistic to expect to wear narrower shoes after surgery. Consult the doctor about what you can expect after bunion surgery.

Bunion Disease Prevention

To assist in the prevention of bunions disease, select shoes carefully. They should have a full toe box with no pointy toes, and there should be space between the tip of the longest toe and the end of the shoe. The shoes should conform to the shape of the feet without squeezing or pressing any part of the foot.

Updated: January 30, 2020 — 12:28 pm

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